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A Dark Matter Theory

by EverLight


THE MYSTERY 

Dark Matter. One of the most frightening mysteries of Astrophysics. It as no color, no odor. It doesn’t seem to interact with particles, baryonic or otherwise, nor can it be detected with any instrument. We just know it makes up about 85 to 80 percent of the universes mass, and that it was proposed as the missing matter of the universe. Wait….there’s missing matter in the universe? Apparently there is. You see, galaxies rotate at 168 miles per hour, which is a speed too fast for the matter contained in stars, nebulae, and planets to handle. In fact, the friction caused by that speed should be pulling galaxies apart-yet we don’t see that happening. Which means that there is some kind of matter holding galaxies together and that matter, although it makes up 90 percent of the universe, seems to be missing. Where is it? What is it? Astronomers have found half of it -WHIM - warm gasses and plasmas that interlock around galaxies but WHIM makes up only 30 percent of the missing matter, and it still doesn’t explain Dark Matter. Which leads us to this question-What is Dark Matter? I have a theory that can answer that. Now, I’ll admit, that my theory may not be the answer, but I believe that it has a good chance of being so.

DEFYING THE LAWS OF SPACE

My theory says that Dark Matter comes from Blackholes and consists of ”dead” quarks. Confused? Let me reword it-I believe Dark Matter is emitted from Blackholes. What? Don’t Blackholes suck in and destroy whatever they consume? First of all, Blackholes do not destroy matter. Instead, they stretch and elongate matter while it breaks down into bare particles-a process is called spaggetification. Secant, in theory, Blackholes don’t spaghettify everything, as they emit what’s called Hawking Radiation (which is electromagnetic radiation)…What I’m saying is if Blackholes can emit energy then they certainly can emit matter from inside of them. Okay, okay, I know that defies the laws of physics, but are you kidding me? The very Atoms that make up the universe shouldn’t exist-The Electrons, Neutrons, and Protons that make them, should all be crashing into and destroying each other. In fact, a recent survey concluded that the universe shouldn’t exist, because the symmetry between Antimatter and Matter is the same, and that means the early universe should have been destroyed. Not enough? How about this-Not too long ago everyone thought there were no planets except for the ones in our solar system, yet now we are aware of thousands of planets beyond the solar system, not to mention the fact that one of the first one discovered- Bee b1-shouldn’t exist because it’s too close to its star. And other galaxies were once thought to be nebulae, yet now it is a known fact-there are about 1 trillion galaxies in the universe. So you see, space is filled with things that Astronomers once said shouldn’t exist but now are excepted (If reluctantly) as an integral part of modern day science. Let me put it this way-Don’t tell me the limits of space when our galaxy isn’t being torn apart by the Supermassive Blackhole in its center.

HOW FAST? 

So it’s agreed, Blackholes can emit matter. Now let’s suppose Blackholes have a limit as to how much matter they can consume, and that once every 100 to 1000 years a Blackhole reaches that limit, and all that matter produces enough gravity to pull itself out of the Blackhole and shoot out into space. But wait-How can matter escape a Blackhole when a Blackhole has an escape velocity of about 299 792 458? To escape a Blackhole, particles would need to travel faster than light. How much faster would that be? To answer that let’s do some calculations. We’ll start with the number of particles in the universe which is- 328,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, or Untrigintillion. Now let’s say a Blackhole consumes half of that, so we’ll cut that Untrigintillion down into Septenvigintillion-100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,00. Now multiply that by the speed of light, and the number you get is Doutrigintillion-100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,00. And there’s your answer-for all the particles in the universe to escape a Blackhole would have to go Doutrigintillion times the speed of light. And that’s how fast faster then light is.

FASTER THEN LIGHT 

How can a particle travel faster than light in the first place? Let’s rephrase the question-Is there anything that can move faster than light? The answer is surprisingly, yes. One such thing is what’s called Cherenkov Radiation. Cherenkov Radiation is radiation emitted by particles traveling through a dielectric field, faster than light. In theory, there are also particles called Tachyons that travel so fast that they lose energy and mass as they move, enabling them to travel faster than light. Thus there are things that can travel faster than light, but they must meet a certain requirement. What is that requirement? Well, for an object to travel faster than light, it must have zero or infinite mass and zero and infinite energy. And a Blackhole would be the perfect place to gain both. How? Well, consider this-When a particle travels down a Blackhole, it’s stripped of its mass and not only that but all laws of physics are breaking down around it. What kind of mass do you think that particle would have? Exactly. Infinite mass. Okay…so a Blackhole could transform a particle with normal mass, into one with infinite mass, but how could it travel faster than light? Well, I believe once a Blackhole has reached the limit of particles it can contain, those particles start crashing into each other, causing explosions with shock waves big enough to bounce them out of the Blackhole at speeds faster than light-and that’s how a particle can travel faster then light.

THE COMPOSITION OF DARK MATTER 

One of the mysteries of Dark Matter is the nature of its composition. I mean, what is the composition of Dark Matter? My answer-Dead quarks. Hold on-quarks can die? Not exactly. What I mean is this-During a quarks time in a Blackhole it’s stripped of its charge, color, and spin, thus, it becomes ”dead” matter. Matter that’s dead to space. Matter that is undetectable because it has no shape, charge, or energy, and is so tiny you can’t see it. Matter that blends in with the blackness of space-Dark Matter.

DARK MATTER GALACTIC AND INTERGALACTIC WIDE 

Finally, there is one last problem I have to solve-How could there be enough Dark Matter to sustain whole galaxies? That’s easy-The limit of particles a Blackhole can consume would be large enough to make enough Dark Matter to be the universes missing matter. Secant our Galaxy contains at least 100 million Blackholes, so if 100 million Blackholes are shooting out Dark Matter every century or millennia then more then 1 quadrillion Dark Matter particles are being spewed out over time. And universally? Well if all 1 trillion galaxies in the universe have 100 million Blackholes, that would be 1 sextillion Dark Matter particles being exploded into the universe. That’s more than enough Dark Matter to be the missing matter of the universe.

CONCLUSION 

To wrap it all up according to my theory, Dark Matter consists of ”dead quarks” that have no charge, energy, or mass that come from the chambers of a Blackhole. And they can come from a Blackhole because, Blackholes have a limit as to how much Matter the consume, and once the amount of quarks in a Blackhole reaches that limit, they have enough force to explode out of a Blackhole faster than light. And those quarks have no charge, energy, or mass, and can’t be detected. And that’s what Dark Matter is.

THE STORY OF DARK MATTER

Chocking Blackness. Everything is distorted. A particle falls through the shadowy depths of the Blackhole, feeling chains stretch around it longer, and longer, as it does so. Heavy pressure. Everything is confined. The particle has become part of the Blackholes prison. It lays, there lifeless, stripped of everything, but existence. Movement. Everything is motion. Thousands of more particles huddle together. Together they are stronger. Heat. Everything is alive. The Blackhole can not trap anymore of it’s prey. The particles crash into each other excited. Freedom is at hand. An explosion. Everything is speed. The particles shoot out of the Blackhole, faster than light. Starlight. Everything is still. The particles enter space. They have arisen. They are dead no more. They have found liberty. They have become Dark Matter.


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Thu Nov 07, 2019 3:03 pm
niteowl wrote a review...



Hi there! Niteowl here to review!

Okay, so I'm not going to attempt to determine the scientific validity of this proposal, as that is way beyond my wheelhouse. However, I do have a Master's degree in geochemistry, and I actually did start out as an astrophysics major, so I do know quite a bit about scientific writing and such. So I will largely address the writing itself.

To start with the good, I think it's really cool that you're tackling such an interesting topic and coming up with your own ideas about what dark matter is. I also absolutely love the final paragraph because it's so poetic.

That said, I think the main problem with this work is that I don't know what the intended audience is. It doesn't feel like it's for the general public, as it uses a lot of scientific terms without defining them. However, it doesn't seem suited to a scientific audience either, as it lacks the structure of a scientific paper, uses very informal language, cites no sources, and doesn't use basic conventions like scientific notation.

The first thing I would do when writing any essay, about any topic, is think about my probable audience. For example, if I was writing about my master's research in a newspaper article meant for a general audience, I would write much differently than I would if I was writing a scientific paper meant to be read by other scientists. Assuming this is for a general audience, I would define terms more clearly and give more background to the ideas. In a real scientific paper, you end up having to cite something in almost every sentence. That's overkill for a general audience, but I would still include citations so an interested reader can see where you're getting this information from. Given how fast research in this area changes, if your sources are outdated, it could render your entire proposal moot. Or if you interpret them incorrectly (e.g. [url=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherenkov_radiation[/url]Wikipedia's[/url] explanation of Cherenkov radiation suggests that you misunderstood that concept, as it can't travel faster than light in a vacuum (c)).

Also, I'm going to strongly object to the use of the word "theory". A theory in the scientific sense is much different than a theory in the colloquial sense. A scientific theory is an overarching concept that has been tested through several experiments over time to the point of being a commonly accepted interpretation of the facts. For some more explanation, check these sources:
https://www.livescience.com/21491-what-is-a-scientific-theory-definition-of-theory.html
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_theory (Side note, never cite Wikipedia as an actual source, but it's decent for getting a general idea of something and the sources it cites may be good citeable sources).

What you actually have here is a conjecture, a guess. I'm not sure I could even call it a hypothesis, because a hypothesis has to be testable, and I have no clue how one would go about testing this. If you can come up with such a test, that would be interesting, but I understand that that is very difficult having attempted to write grant proposals before lol.

Some other points:

Astronomers have found half of it -WHIM - warm gasses and plasmas that interlock around galaxies but WHIM makes up only 30 percent of the missing matter, and it still doesn’t explain Dark Matter.


Acronyms need to be defined the first time they're used in an article. The official term you need here is Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium.

So it’s agreed, Blackholes can emit matter. Now let’s suppose Blackholes have a limit as to how much matter they can consume, and that once every 100 to 1000 years a Blackhole reaches that limit, and all that matter produces enough gravity to pull itself out of the Blackhole and shoot out into space.


1) you don't need to capitalize black hole, and it's two separate words.
2) There are a lot of assumptions made in this sentence, and I have no clue if they're reasonable or not. When scientists make assumptions like this, they have to find sources to support these assumptions. This also goes for the numbers you state in this paragraph.
3) The numbers you get into in this section are not well stated. A bunch of zeroes doesn't explain anything, nor do weird words like "Untrigintrillion". Write things in scientific notation. For example, the speed of light (c) is about 2.99 * 10^8 meters/second. Even an undergraduate student in physics has to get real comfortable real fast with very big and very small numbers, and life is too short to interpret a bunch of zeroes or funny words, so scientific notation it is.

Secant our Galaxy contains at least 100 million Blackholes, so if 100 million Blackholes are shooting out Dark Matter every century or millennia then more then 1 quadrillion Dark Matter particles are being spewed out over time.


I'm not sure if "secant" is a typo or not, but I've seen it twice where I think you meant "second". Secant is something you learn about in high school geometry.

Okay, I've rambled long enough, but overall, I would think about your audience, make sure your definitions and explanations are clear, cite sources, and justify your assumptions. I do love that you're thinking about big ideas, and based on your end paragraph, if you have any awesome science poetry I'd love to see it (I'm a sucker for science poems lol).




EverLight says...


Thanks for your review (:



EverLight says...


I'm glad to find someone on here to actually understands what I'm writing about XD.



EverLight says...


I do love that you're thinking about big ideas...

Can you explain exactly what you mean by that?



EverLight says...


No, I don't have any scientific poetry.



EverLight says...


As for the audience...well I didn't really think about that when I wrote this (obviously) I just knew I had an idea and that I had to get it out. You feel?



niteowl says...


Oh definitely. I mean I think it's cool that you're going beyond what you read about dark matter and making your own thoughts about what this is. It's definitely easy to just read about some cool science thing, go "oh, that's cool" and move on with your day, but you took it a step further, which I admire.



EverLight says...


Great minds think alike (;



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Thu Nov 07, 2019 1:43 pm
JacyBuschman wrote a review...



This is well-written considering the difficulty of the topic.

But, if you were to convince average or even above average people of your topic, you'll need a lot more background information. You started doing it here
"My theory says that Dark Matter comes from Blackholes and consists of ”dead” quarks. Confused? Let me reword it-I believe Dark Matter is emitted from Blackholes. What? Don’t Blackholes suck in and destroy whatever they consume? First of all, Blackholes do not destroy matter. Instead, they stretch and elongate matter while it breaks down into bare particles-a process is called spaggetification. "


Depending on the level of essay you plan on this, I would also take out any "I" "let me", personal identification. We know it's you explaining, it's just overbulking the information and unnecessary. Also in professional type theory papers, they refrain from doing that as well. We know it's your theory and that's why we are here to read it, (:

You also have some incomplete sentences, and some spacing/grammatical errors, which any quick check will fix for ya no problem, so I won't bother pointing them all out.

I love how you section the paper/essay/writing with little titles, or subject lines, but I would suggest maybe moving "The Story of Dark Matter" to be one of the first things. Being at the end makes it feel tacted on.

Space talk and topics are one of my favorites, and it was something my grandfather and father discuss heavily, and even share youtube subjects about. I'm glad to see more young people openly discussing it.




EverLight says...


Thanks for your review (:



EverLight says...


You mean young people as in me and you openly discussing it? Just checking.



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Thu Nov 07, 2019 12:27 am



Wow. This is so interesting. I was actually just procrastinating from hw, but then I found this 🧐 U must’ve done a lot of research. I read it through once and I’ll prob forget all this science in 10 minutes but for rn I feel “smart”

And for anyone reading this, they’re basically saying that “black holes emit dark matter” and then they explain the reasons, dealing with the speed of light and how the universe shouldn’t exist and such

Bye

-Daria




EverLight says...


You don't have to like it.



EverLight says...


Thank you for your review (:



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Tue Nov 05, 2019 3:19 pm
SoulSpace says...



I don't know what you are talking about here (: Sorry.




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Tue Nov 05, 2019 3:17 pm
ServalX says...



Oh. Science stuff. I cannot understand a word of this.





Blessed is the man who, having nothing to say, abstains from giving us wordy evidence of the fact.
— George Eliot