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Grammar & Research
Who and Whom: What's the Difference?
Tue Sep 04, 2007 3:04 am
The rules of when to use who/whoever and whom/whomever are simple, but sadly, many writers and students struggle with these tricky little pronouns. In casual speech, we almost never use “whom” and “whomever,” so we don't pick it up quite as easily as we do other grammatical rules.
So when do you use “who” or “whoever”? “Who” is the subjective form, meaning that the person to whom it is referring is the subject of the sentence.
Betsy went to the store to buy milk.
Who went to the store to buy milk?
In this example, Betsy is the subject of the sentence, meaning she is the one doing the action. Therefore, when we substitute a pronoun for “Betsy”, that pronoun will be “Who”.
On the other hand, “whom” and “whomever” are the objective form, or the object of the sentence.
Timmy asked Lola to the dance.
Timmy asked whom to the dance? Or, Whom did Timmy ask to the dance?
In this example, Lola is the object of the sentence, meaning that she is the one receiving the action, in this case Timmy's request to go to the dance. Therefore, “whom” is substituted for “Lola”.
Tell the difference with this one weird trick!
Here is a simple and fairly accurate trick you can use to determine which to use: substitute the pronouns “he” and “him” or “she” and “her” to determine when to use “who” and “whom”, and the pronouns “they” and “them” for “whoever” and “whoever”.
Who/Whom eats lunch at the cafe?
Substitute “He” if you want to try “Who” and “Him” if you want to try “Whom”—it's easy to remember the pairs, since “him” and “whom” both end in m. Obviously, in this example, we would say “He eats lunch at the cafe,” not “Him eats lunch at the cafe.” Since “He” works, we would use “Who”.
Timmy kissed the girl whom he liked in first grade.
Here, we would substitute “her”—“Timmy kissed her,” not “Timmy kissed she.” Therefore, “whom” is the correct word to use here.
This has just been a short and simple explanation of the rules of “who” and “whom”. It can be very tricky to figure out which to use sometimes, but I hope this has been a helpful summary of the basics.
"My pet, I've been to the devil, and he's a very dull fellow. I won't go there again, even for you..."
Tue Sep 04, 2007 3:21 am
My Writing Tutor part of me went all squee over this.
Really good break down of the rules, cadmium.
: Stop stealing the blanket.
: You're an Arctic Wolf, for God's sake.
Do I need a reason to help a pretty girl in a very wet dress? (
Tue Sep 04, 2007 5:21 am
Yay! I'm afraid I've always been a bit defficient in this area, thanks a million, cadmium, darling!
"In a sort of ghastly simplicity we remove the organ and demand the function...We laugh at honour and are shocked to find traitors in our midst. We castrate and bid the geldings be fruitful." ~C.S. Lewis
Wed Feb 20, 2008 12:53 pm
You are so good! You should be a grammar/english teacher or something. Ever thought about that?
Christianity is not a religion, it's a relationship.
I may not be perfect but Jesus thinks I'm to die for.
"Let's destroy these little darlings..."- W.Beckett
Mon Jun 22, 2009 10:17 pm
I agree--you could easily be a teacher.
"We would accomplish many more things if we didn't think of them as impossible." Vince Lombardi
~You've just been ticketed by the
! 1000 word essay fine.
Sun Feb 21, 2010 11:14 pm
Those two have always had me scratching my head.
"Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. The one who believes in me will live, even though they die; and whoever lives by believing in me will never die. Do you believe this?”
"Who am I? I'm just a writer. I write things down. I walk through your dreams and invent the future."
— Richard Siken
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