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The Immune Checkpoint Holds Great Promise for Cancer Immunotherapy

by cataliesw


Cancer is a severe public health issue and one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the effect of chemoradiotherapy for cancer or tumor may be limited due to serious side effects and drug resistance. Therefore, it is essential to develop noveltherapies for cancer treatment.

In 2018, James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo's research on the immune checkpointsprogrammed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) demonstrated that they acted as a "brake" in immune function and suggested that immune checkpoint inhibition may reactivate T cells and eliminate cancer cells more effectively. Preclinical studies showing decreased tumor growth and improved survival with CTLA-4 or PD-1 pathway blockade provide the rationale for immune checkpoint inhibition for cancer treatment.

Truly, the discovery of the checkpoint molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1has pushed the pharmaceutical industry to developspecific inhibitors for cancer treatments, driving many scientists and physicians to further explore this area in recent years. Especially notable is the significant accomplishment in the treatment of malignant melanoma, where no advance has been made in the therapy of this terrible illness in more than 30 years. Besides, monoclonal antibodies that block CTLA-4 or PD-1 are in development for other tumor types, including kidney cancer, prostate cancer, and head and neck cancer. Other agents specifically targeting PD-L1 are also in development.

While CTLA-4 and PD-1 blockade has proved successful in improving survival rates, many patients do not respond or develop resistance to these interventions. Pre-clinical and clinical studies, on the other hand, have shown that combining two distinct immunological checkpoints as therapeutic targets, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1, LAG-3 and PD-1, TIM-3 and PD-1, and A2AR/PD-L1, has great potential.

However, the path is still rocky. Many issues and questions arose during the experience with immunotherapeutic drugs targeting immunological checkpoint molecules. For instance, it is still not clear how to monitor the success of therapy, and many patients do not respond or develop resistance to interventions of PD-1 and CTLA-4. There is no doubt that these questions require further research. Therefore, studiesfocused on immune checkpoint molecules areunder intensive investigation. CreativeBiolabsis committed to providing immunotherapeutic development services, such as immune checkpoint-based antibodies, molecules, biomarkers, peptides, and proteins, to support research on cancer immunotherapy.

In conclusion, immune checkpoint inhibition is a promising approach for treating cancer, with a considerable proportion of patients benefiting, despite its limitations in clinical use. Further studies on immune checkpoints are needed to address the existing problems and help more patients with tumors and other diseases.


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Tue Sep 05, 2023 12:59 pm
IcyFlame wrote a review...



Hey there cataliesw, Icy here for a quick RevMo review.

An overarching comment before I get into the review: it's a good idea to have a quick proof read before posting anything copied and pasted onto YWS. For some reason, the site's formatting can be a little quirky and you might find you miss some of the formatting you originally had. In this case, there are a few spaces missing here and there which means some of the meaning is lost in places. A quick read through before posting should help you catch these in future.

I'd also suggest referencing in a different manner to using hyperlinks. Links and references can change, so it's probably better to pick a more conventional method of referencing so you can capture the information as it was when you wrote the piece, rather than risking it changing.

Some of your connecting words might also warrant a rethink. I know how difficult it is when writing an essay not to feel like you're repeating yourself by saying things like 'however', but sometimes the repetition is preferable to losing meaning through using a word that doesn't quite fit. An example of this in the above piece is here:

Besides, monoclonal antibodies that block CTLA-4 or PD-1 are in development for other tumor types, including kidney cancer, prostate cancer, and head and neck cancer.

The besides doesn't really link to the previous sentence, so it makes it harder to understand.

Overall, this piece was quite concise and well written. I hope you achieved what you set out to do with this piece!

Icy

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Sat Sep 02, 2023 11:46 pm
Honeyrosearts wrote a review...



I'm not nearly smart enough to understand this but it's very fascinating! My suggestion would be to add parentheses with definitions beside words that the average reader doesn't understand (noveltherapies, malignant melanoma, etc) just to make the article more reader-friendly. The beginning also lacks a bit of substance, typically you'd want to draw in your audience by dramatizing a bit. Example:

" 'Cancer is a severe public health issue and one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide.' It's estimated that 2 out of 5 people will receive a cancer diagnosis sometime in their lifetime. However, not everyone will be able to receive treatment because 'the effect of chemoradiotherapy for cancer or tumors may be limited due to serious side effects and drug resistance. Therefore, it is essential to develop noveltherapies for cancer treatment.'

Just adding that extra *spice* can change an audience's mind on wether or not they wish to continue reading.

It's evident that you know what you're talking about based on your writing and I applaud you for this well-written article. Just remember to always proof read ;)





If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them.
— Henry David Thoreau, "Walden"